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Scientific studies and homeopathy

Effects of highly-diluted substances on human body

Piltan D. et al. “Test of a homeopathic dilution of Aconitum napellus. A clinical, randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover study in healthy volunteers.” Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Jun;16(3):168-73. Epub 2009 Jun 5. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657201

Möllinger H, Schneider R, Walach H. “Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce specific symptoms different from placebo.” Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Apr;16(2):105-10. Epub 2009 Apr 9. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19420956

Walach H, Möllinger H, Sherr J, Schneider R. “Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce more specific than non-specific symptoms: results from two double-blind placebo controlled trials.” J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):543-52. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18701641

Bracho G et al. 2010 - “Large-scale application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control.” Homeopathy. 2010 Jul;99(3):156-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20674839

Complex meta-analysis

Mathie RT et al. (2013) –list of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in humans, until 2011, 263 studies– “Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in humans: characterising the research journal literature for systematic review.” Homeopathy. 2013 Jan;102(1):3-24.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23290875)

Bornhöft G. et al. “Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice – summarized health technology assessment.” Forsch Komplementmed. 2006;13 Suppl 2:19-29. Epub 2006 Jun 26. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16883077

comments on Bornhöft study:

Shaw DM. The Swiss report on homeopathy: a case study of research misconduct. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 May 31;142:w13594. http://www.smw.ch/content/smw-2012-13594/

Reply to Shaw DM: von Ammon K, Bornhöft G, Maxion-Bergemann S, Righetti M, Baumgartner S,Thurneysen A, Wolf U, Matthiessen PF. Familiarity, objectivity - and misconduct: Counterstatement to Shaw DM. The Swiss Report on homoeopathy: a case study of research misconduct. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142:w13594. http://www.smw.ch/content/smw-2013-13720/

Meta-analysis of financial costs

Viksveen P, Dymitr Z, Simoens S. Economic evaluations of homeopathy: a review. Eur J Health Econ. 2013 Feb 10.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23397477)

Effects of highly-diluted substances on animals

Clausen J et al. – review study, 48 studies from 1832-2009 – “Infection models in basic research on homeopathy”. Homeopathy. 2010 Oct;99(4):263-70. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20970096)

Endler et al. “Treatment of lowland frogs from the spawn stage with homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10(-30)).” ScientificWorldJournal. 2007 Oct 22;7:1697-702. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17982565

Camerlink I. et al. “Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets.” Homeopathy. 2010 Jan;99(1):57-62. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129177

Basic research, laboratory models

Preclinical – basic research of homeopathy (eg. physico-chemical models) cannot be in a true sense called homeopathy, because two of the three main pillars of homeopathy are not used here. Specifically, it is the similarity principle (like cures like) and the principle of symptoms totality. Similarly, so-called provings (potentized drug testing in healthy subjects) are not used in pre-clinical research. Therefore, the results of these studies are useful only in limited ways in daily clinical practice in humans. The main studied phenomenon in these experiments is a third pillar of homeopathy – principle of potentization (dynamization) of substances and its effects on living and non-living systems.

  • Database of experiments: HomBRex database – The Homeopathic Basic Research experiments database – includes more than 1700 experiments in 1300 papers - http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex

Endler et al. (2010) – review, repeated experiments in basic research, 107 studies, 24 models – “Repetitions of fundamental research models for homeopathically prepared dilutions beyond 10(-23): a bibliometric study.” Homeopathy. 2010 Jan;99(1):25-36.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129174)

  • Animal studies

assumptions for study selection:

- use of high potencies (12CH and more)

- blinded conditions

effects on physiological functions:

Ruiz-Vega et al. (2005)– “Histamine at high dilution reduces spectral density in delta band in sleeping rats”. Homeopathy (2005), Vol. 94(2), pp. 86-91 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15892488)

Welles et al. (2007)– “Pretreatment with thyroxin 10(-8) and the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin 10(-30) on highland frogs–a multi-researcher study.” Forsch Komplementärmed (2007), Vol. 14(6), pp. 353-357 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18219210)

Weber et al. (2008)– “The effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxine on highland frogs: influence of electromagnetic fields”. Homeopathy (2008), Vol. 97(1), pp. 3-9 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18194759)

de Oliviera et al. (2011)–“Mercurius solubilis: actions on macrophages”. Homeopathy (2011), Vol. 100(4), pp. 228-236 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962197)

Kiefer et al. (2012) –“Lowland amphibians - recalculation of data on effects of diluted thyroxine”. Int J High Dil Res (2012), Vol. 11(38), pp. 3-18 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/526)

Negative findings:

Velkers et al. (2005)– “Isopathic and pluralist homeopathic treatment of commercial broilers with experimentally induced colibacillosis” Res Vet Science (2005), Vol. 78(1), pp. 77-83(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15500843)

Siegling-Vlitakis et al. (2009)– “In vitro examination of potentized atropine sulfate dilutions on the contractility of the isolated rat ileum”. J Altern Complement Med (2009), Vol. 15(10), pp. 1121-1126(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19824820)

effects on animal emotions:

Magnani et al. (2010) –“Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety-related responses in mice”. Psychopharmacology (2010), Vol. 210(4), pp. 533-545 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877813/)

Bellavite et al. (2011)– “Effects of high-dilutions in behavioural models: a commentary on critical issues, from reproducibility to plausibility”. Int J High Dilution Res 2011; 10(37): 325-337 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/532/550)

Bellavite et al. (2012) –“Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies”. eCAM (2012), Vol. Article ID 954374, pp. 1-9 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3324905/)

Heine et al. (2012) –“Assessment of homeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus in the treatment of anxiety in an animal model”. Int J High Dilution Res 2012; 11(38):33-42 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewArticle/547)

effects on animal diseases and toxicological studies:

Clausen J et al. (2013) – review of placebo-controlled trials in veterinary homeopathy, from 1965- April 2012, 203 controlled, 146 randomised, 57 non-randomised, 97 placebo-controlled trials – “Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy: Placebo-controlled trials.” Complement Ther Med. 2013 Apr;21(2):115-20. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23497815)

Clausen J et al. – review study, 48 studies from 1832-2009 – “Infection models in basic research on homeopathy”. Homeopathy. 2010 Oct;99(4):263-70. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20970096)

later or selected older studies:

Biswas et al. (2005)–“Efficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Carcinosin 200, fed alone and in combination with another drug, Chelidonium 200, in amelioration of p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice”. J Altern Complement Med (2005), Vol. 11(5), pp. 839-854 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296917)

Paula Coelho et al. (2006)– “Therapeutic and pathogenetic animal models for Dolichos pruriens”. Homeopathy (2006), Vol. 95(3), pp. 136-143(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16815516)

Jonas et al. (2006)– “Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth?” Integr Cancer Ther (2006), Vol. 5(4), pp. 343-349 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101763)

MacLaughlin et al. (2006)– “Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models”. Integr Cancer Ther (2006), Vol. 5(4), pp. 362-372 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101766)

Banerjee et al. (2007)– “A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum album 200, can ameliorate genotoxicity induced by repeated injections of arsenic trioxide in mice”. J Vet Med (A) (2007), Vol. 54(7), pp. 370-376(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17718811)

Pathak et al. (2007)– “Supportive evidence for the anticancerous potential of alternative medicine against hepatocarcinogenesis in mice”. Forsch Komplementärmed (2007), Vol. 14(3), pp. 148-156 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17596695)

Bhattacharjee et al. (2009)– “Homeopathic drugs Natrum sulphuricum and Carcinosin prevent azo dye-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice”. Indian J Biochem Biophys (2009), Vol. 46(4), pp. 307-318 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19788063)

Bhattacharjee et al. (2009)– “Amelioration of carcinogen-induced toxicity in mice by administration of a potentized homeopathic drug, Natrum sulphuricum 200”. eCAM (2009), Vol. 6(1), pp. 65-75 (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2009/521217/abs/)

Goncalves de Araujo et al. (2009)– “Effect of Mercurius solubilis on the bacteriological response in the alveolitis process in rats”. Homeopathy (2009), Vol. 98(3), pp. 160-164 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647210)

Kuzeff et al. (2009)– “Isopathic versus enantiomeric inhibition of U-50488 HCl toxicity” Homeopathy (2009), Vol. 98(2), pp. 83-87 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358960)

Pathak et al. (2009)– “Combinational homeopathic therapy reduces genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in mice fed carcinogenesis”. Clin Exp Hom (2009), Vol. 1(1), pp. (1-10) (http://www.sukulhomeopathy.com/newjournal/khuda-buksh1.pdf)

Viriato et al. (2009)– “Study of high dilution of copaiba oil on inflammatory process”. Int J High Dil Res (2009), Vol. 8(26), pp. 9-14 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/305/380)

Banerjee et al. (2010)– “Chelidonium majus 30C and 200C in induced hepato-toxicity in rats”. Homeopathy (2010), Vol. 99(3)(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20674840)

Ghilosso-Bortolini et al. (2010)– “Putative protective effect of Cadmium chloride high diluted solution on LLC-PK1 cell intoxicated by high concentration of this same metal”. Int J High Dil Res (2010), Vol. 9(30), pp. 16-29 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewArticle/381)

Banerjee et al. (2011)– “Evidences of protective potentials of microdoses of ultra-high diluted arsenic trioxide in mice receiving repeated injections of arsenic trioxide”. eCAM (2011), Vol. 2011 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135423/)

Patil et al. (2011)– “Modulation of arthritis in rats by Toxicodendron pubescens and its homeopathic dilutions”. Homeopathy (2011), Vol. 100(3) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21784329)

Bhattacharjee, Khuda-Bukhsh (2012)– “Two homeopathic remedies used intermittently provide additional protective effects against hepatotoxicity induced by carcinogens in mice” J Acupunct Meridian Stud (2012), Vol. 5(4), pp. 166-175 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898065)

Mohammadi et al. (2012)– “Homeopathic treatment for peripheral nerve regeneration: an experimental study in a rat sciatic nerve transection model.” Homeopathy (2012), Vol. 101(3), pp. 141-146 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22818230)

Patel et al. (2012)– “Toxicodendron pubescens retains its anti-arthritic efficacy at 1M, 10M and CM homeopathic dilutions.” Homeopathy (2012), Vol. 101(3), pp. 165-170 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22818234)

Negative findings:

Almeida et al. (2009)– “Homeopathic treatment for bone regeneration: experimental study.” Homeopathy (2009), Apr;98(2):92-6. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358962)

  • Bacterial studies

Saha et al. (2012) – “Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine (2012), Vol. 10(4), pp. 462-470 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22500721)

Das S et al. (2012) – “Potential of the homeopathic remedy, Arnica Montana 30C, to reduce DNA damage in Escherichia coli exposed to ultraviolet irradiation through up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair genes. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012 Mar;10(3):337-46. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22409925)

De A et al. (2012) – “Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic resistance gene in arsenine-exposed bacteria Escherichia coli” J Chin Integr Med (2012), Vol. 10(2), pp. 210-227 (http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=jcim20120212)

  • Studies on plants

healthy plants – effects on growth and constituents:

Majewsky et al. (2009) – review of studies from 1920-2009, 86 studies – “Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with healthy plants.” Homeopathy. 2009 Oct;98(4):228-43.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945677)

later or selected older studies:

Baumgartner et al. (2004) – “Growth Stimulation of Dwarf Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Through Homeopathic Potencies of Plant Growth Substances.” Forsch Komplementärmed (2004), Vol. 11(5), pp. 281-292(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15572869)

Scherr C et al. (2007) – “Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) as a test organism for homeopathic potencies.” J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Nov;13(9):931-7.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18047439)

Bonfim et al. (2008) – “Use of homeopathic Arnica montana for the issuance of roots of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br.” Int J High Dil Res (2008), Vol. 7(23), pp. 72-76(http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewArticle/276)

Scherr et al. (2009) – “Effects of potentised substances on growth rate of the water plant Lemna gibba L.” Complement Ther Med. 2009 Apr;17(2):63-70.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19185263)

Bonato et al. (2009) – “Homeopathic drugs Arsenicum album and Sulphur affect the growth and essential oil content in mint (Mentha arvensis L.)” Acta Scientarum Agronomy (2009), Vol. 31(1), pp. 101-105(http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/6642)

Gangar (2010) – “Management of genetic activity through homoeopathy.” Int J Pharma Bio Sci (2010), Vol. 1(2), pp. 1-13(http://www.ijpbs.net/issue-2/177.pdf)

Pfleger et al. (2011) – “The effect of extremely diluted agitated gibberellic acid (10e-30) on wheat stalk growth-A two researcher pilot study.” Complement Ther Med. 2011 Jun;19(3):164-9. Epub 2011 May 20. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21641523

Kiefer ET AL. (2012) – “Wheat germination and highly diluted agitated gibberellic acid (10 -30) – a multi researcher study”. Int J High Dil Res (2012), Vol. 11(39), pp. 45-59(http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/428)

effects on plant diseases:

Betti et al. (2009) – review of phytopathological studies from 1969-2009, 44 studies, plants + viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes - “Use of homeopathic preparations in phytopathological models and in field trials: a critical review.” Homeopathy. 2009 Oct;98(4):244-66.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945678)

later or selected older studies:

Datta (2006) – “Effects of Cina on root-knot disease of mulberry.” Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95(2):98-102.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16569626)

Sukul et al. (2006) – “Amelioration of root-knot disease of lady's finger plants by potentized Cina and Santonin.” Homeopathy. 2006 Jul;95(3):144-7.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16815517)

Shah-Rossi et al. (2009) – “Homeopathic treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with Pseudomonas syringae.” ScientificWorldJournal. 2009 May 20;9:320-30. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19468651)

Wyss et al. (2010) – “Homeopathic preparations to control the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.)” Scientific World J (2010), Vol. 10, pp. 38-48(http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2010/358407/abs/)

Datta, Datta (2012) – “Homeopathic medicines protect environment, health and development by controlling mulberry disease.” J Homeopath Ayurv Med (2012), Vol. 1(1), pp. 1-7(http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/2167-1206/2167-1206-1-104.php?aid=4121)

increase of plant resistance to external influences

Jäger et al. (2011) – review of studies from 1920-2010, 34 studies with different quality - “Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with abiotically stressed plants.” Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):275-87.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962204)

later or selected older studies:

Binder et al. (2005) – “The effects of a 45x potency of arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth – a reproduction trial.” Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Oct;12(5):284-91.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16230858)

Lahnstein et al. (2009) – “Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth–further reproduction trials.” Homeopathy (2009), Vol. 98(4)(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945675)

Jäger et al. (2010) – “Effects of homeopathic arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid preparations on the growth rate of arsenic-impaired duckweed (Lemna gibba L.)” Scientific World J (2010), Vol. 10, pp. 2112-2129(http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2010/107597/abs/)

Bonfim et al. (2010) – ” Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of aluminum“. Int J High Dil Res (2010), Vol. 9(33), pp. 138-146 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/412/450)

Brizzi et al. (2011) – “The efficacy of ultramolecular aqueous dilutions on a wheat germination model as a function of heat and aging-time”. eCAM (2011), Vol. 2011, pp. 696298; (1-11)(http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/696298/)

  • Studies on cells and non-cellular systems

Witt et al.,2007 – systematic review, 67 experiments from years 1966-2005, 1/3 replicated research - includes non-cellular systems (mostly enzymes), cell cultures, isolated cells (erythrocytes, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17544864

later studies:

Malarczyk, E. (2008) – “Kinetic changes in activity of HR-peroxidase, induced by very low doses of phenol”. Int J High Dil Res (2008), Vol. 7(23), pp. 3-11 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/37/349)

  • Thermoluminescence

Rey L. (2003) – “Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride.” Physica A (2003), Vol. 323, pp. 67-74. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4371(03)00047-5)

van Wijk R et al. (2006) – “Thermoluminescence in ultra-high dilution research.” J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jun;12(5):437-43.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16813507)

Rey L. (2007) – “Can low-temperature thermoluminescence cast light on the nature of ultra-high dilutions?” Homeopathy (2007), Vol. 96(3), pp. 170-174. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678813)

  • Spectroscopy

Sukul et al. (2005) – FTIR – “Variation in Fourier transform infrared spectra of some homeopathic potencies and their diluent media. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):807-12. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296914)

Rao et al. (2008) – UV spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy – “Characterization of the structure of ultra dilute sols with remarkable biological properties” Mater Lett. 2008 April 15; 62(10-11): 1487. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822343/)

Bhattacharya et al. (2008) – different types – “In vitro studies demonstrate anticancer activity of an alkaloid of the plant Gelsemium sempervirens”. Exp Biol Med (2008), Vol. 233(12), pp. 1591-1601. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997108)

Botha I, Ross AH. (2008) – MRI spectroscopy – “A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy comparison of 3C trituration derived and 4C trituration derived remedies”. Homeopathy. 2008 Oct;97(4):196-201. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371568)

de Alvarenga et al. (2009) – 13C MRI spectroscopy – “Effect of Magnesium phosphoricum 12c on Sodium Dodecylsulphate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance”. Int J High Dil Res (2009), Vol. 8(26), pp. 3-8 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/324/379)

Sharma A., Purkait B. (2009) – UV spectroscopy – “Energy in Commercially Available Ultra-Diluted Natural Cardiotropic Drug Digitalis purpurea: An UV Spectroscopic Study. Research Journal of Pharmacology, 3: 58-62. (http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=rjpharm.2009.58.62)

Sharma A. et al. (2010) – FTIR, Raman spectroscopy – “Identification of medicinally active ingredients in ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies.” Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 643–651, 2010.(http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00044-009-9219-3)

Marschollek et al. (2010) – UV spectroscopy – “Effects of exposure to physical factors on homeopathic preparations as determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy”. Scientific World J (2010), Vol. 10, pp. 49-81 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20062950)

Wolf et al. (2011) – UV spectroscopy – “Homeopathic Preparations of Quartz, Sulfur and Copper Sulfate Assessed by UV-Spectroscopy.” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:692798. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19474239)

Sharma A., Purkait B. (2012) – Florescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltametry – “Identification of Medicinally Active Ingredient in Ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea: Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Cyclic-Voltammetric Study.” Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol. 2012, Article ID 109058, 5 pages, 2012. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/109058)

Negative findings:

Aabel et al. (2001) – 1H MRI spectroscopy, T1 relaxation times – “Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of homeopathic solutions.” Br Homeopath J. 2001 Jan;90(1):14-20. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212083)

Anick DJ. (2004) – 1H MRI spectroscopy – “High sensitivity 1H-NMR spectroscopy of homeopathic remedies made in water.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004 Nov 1;4:15. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC534805/)

  • Electron microscopy

proof of original substance nanoparticles, even in extreme dilutions

Chikramane et al. (2010) – “Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective”. Homeopathy (2010), Vol. 99(4), pp. 231-242. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20970092)

Chikramane et al. (2012) – “Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.” Langmuir. 2012 Nov 13;28(45):15864-75. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23083226)

  • Magnetic resonance

changes of relaxation times

Demangeat et al. (2004) – “Low-field NMR water proton longitudinal relaxation in ultrahighly diluted aqueous solutions of silica-lactose prepared in glass material for pharmaceutical use”. Appl Magn Reson (2004), Vol. 26, pp. 465-481 (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03166577)

Demangeat J-L. (2009) – “NMR water proton relaxation in unheated and heated ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence for an air-dependent supramolecular organization of water.” Journal of Molecular Liquids, 144:32-39 (http://www.homeopathyeurope.org/media/news/Demangeat_JML_2009.pdf/view)

Baumgartner S. et al. (2009) – “High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate.” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 96, pp. 1079–1089, 2009. (http://www.springerlink.com/content/044012g3574214m1/)

Demangeat, J.L. (2010) – “NMR relaxation evidence for solute-induced nanosized superstructures in ultramolecular aqueous dilutions of silica-lactose” J Molecular Liquids (2010), Vol. 155 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2010.05.010)

Negative findings:

Aabel et al. (2001) – T1 relaxation times, 1H MR spectroscopy – “Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of homeopathic solutions.” Br Homeopath J. 2001 Jan;90(1):14-20. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212083)

Milgrom et al. (2001) – T2 relaxation timesthere are no differences between diluted and potentized substances- “On the investigation of homeopathic potencies using low resolution NMR T2 relaxation times.” Brit Hom J (2001), Vol. 90(1), pp. 5-13 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212090)

  • Calorimetry, conductivity, potentiometry

Elia V, Niccoli M (1999) – “Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 879:241–248 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10415834)

Petrov SI, Epstein OI. (2003) – “Effect of potentiated solutions on mercury(II) signal in inversion voltammetry.” Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Jan;135 Suppl 7:99-101. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A%3A1024707519510)

Elia V, Niccoli M (2004) – “New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 75: 815–836 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JTAN.0000042179.07858.c8)

Elia et al. (2004) – “Permanent physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions of homeopathic medicines.” Homeopathy, Volume 93, Issue 3, Pages 144-150. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.homp.2004.04.004)

Elia et al. (2004) – “New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions: A calorimetric and conductivity study at 25°C.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 78: 331–342.

Elia et al. (2005) – “Hydrohysteretic phenomena of “extremely diluted solutions” induced by mechanical treatments. A calorimetric and conductometric study at 25 °C.” Journal of Solution Chemistry, 34:947–960 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10953-005-6258-3)

Elia et al. (2006) – “Extremely diluted solutions as multi-variable systems. A study of calorimetric and conductometric behaviour as function of the parameter time.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 84:317–323 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-005-7266-7)

Elia et al. (2008) – “New Physico-Chemical Properties of Extremely Dilute Solutions. A Conductivity Study at 25 °C in Relation to Ageing.” Journal of Solution Chemistry, 37:85-96 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10953-007-9215-5)

Elia et al. (2008) – “On the stability of extremely diluted aqueous solutions at high ionic strength - A calorimetric study at 298 K.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 92:643-648 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-007-8840-y)

Belon et al. (2008) – “Conductometric and calorimetric studies of the serially diluted and agitated solutions. On the combined anomalous effect of time and volume parameters.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 93, 459-469 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-007-8580-z)

Elia et al. (2008) – “Physico-chemical properties of aqueous extremely diluted solutions in relation to ageing.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 93:1003-1011 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-007-8843-8)

Holandino et al. (2008) – “Modeling physical-chemical properties of high dilutions”. Int J High Dil Res (2008), Vol. 7(25), pp. 165-173 (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/319/375)

Elia et al. (2010) – “Thermodynamic parameters for the binding process of the OH− ion with the dissipative structures. Calorimetric and conductometric titrations.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Online First™, 11 April 2010 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-010-0757-1)

Garcia et al. (2010) – “Physical chemical and citotoxic evaluation of highly diluted solutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L. prepared through the fifty milesimal homeopathic method”. Int J High Dil Res (2010), Vol. 9(31) (http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/viewFile/383/439)

  • Biocrystallization

Baumgartner S. et al. (2012) – “Development of a Biocrystallisation Assay for Examining Effects of Homeopathic Preparations Using Cress Seedlings.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 125945, 14 pages, 2012. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/125945)

  • Kirlian effect

Bell et al. (2003) – “Gas discharge visualisation evaluation of ultramolecular doses of homeopathic medicines under blinded, controlled conditions.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9:25–38. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676033)

Peters et al. (2009) – “Biophoton emission in high-potency research on wheat seed models”. Eur J Integr Med (2009), Vol. 1(4) (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876382009001711#)

Assumpcao, R. (2008) – “Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride”. Homeopathy (2008), Vol. 97(3), pp. 129-133(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18657771)

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